Modern Metal Fatigue Analysis by John Draper

Modern Metal Fatigue Analysis by John Draper

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There have been major advances in methods of fatigue life estimation over the past 30 years. Allowable stresses can now be estimated to an accuracy of a few percent. Much of this knowledge is available in research papers but is not readily available to designers. This new publication is intended to bridge the gap between research and design.
ISBN: (13): 978 0 94787 794.

SKU: ISBN: (13): 978 0 94787 794

Modern Metal Fatigue Analysis

John Draper

There have been major advances in methods of fatigue life estimation over the past 30 years. Allowable stresses can now be estimated to an accuracy of a few percent. Much of this knowledge is available in research papers but is not readily available to designers. This new publication is intended to bridge the gap between research and design.

The book is a concise introduction to modern methods of fatigue analysis as well as the more traditional methods. It introduces the concepts of strain-based fatigue analysis and the traditional S-N curve methods. Modern theories of multiaxial fatigue are described, together with their application to strain gauge measurements and fatigue analysis of finite element models. There are chapters on statistical analysis, crack propagation, and recent advances in fatigue analysis of welded steel joints. The final chapters discuss the merits and disadvantages of different types of fatigue tests and aspects of practical fatigue analysis and its application to real-world problems. Throughout the book the emphasis is on practical application.

REVIEW: By Professor Andrew Sherry Director, Materials Performance Centre, and Director, Nuclear EngD Centre University of Manchester

John Draper’s book Modern Metal Fatigue Analysis provides a highly readable and comprehensive introduction to the study of fatigue behaviour of metals and alloys for students, a description of the details of fatigue assessment methods for the design engineer, and includes a level of detail that expert practitioners will find useful. The book opens with a general description of the key elements of fatigue crack initiation and propagation under cyclic loading. With clear figures, a clarity of description, and many practical examples, the book outlines the material response to simple and complex cyclic loading.

Modern Metal Fatigue Analysis opens with an overview of hysteresis, stress concentration and crack closure. Fatigue test methods are described and engineering approaches for the assessment of fatigue are presented. This includes a summary of data requirements, a description of the rainfall method, and an overview of stress concentration factors for notches. The tools available to the design and structural integrity engineer for considering fatigue under uniaxial, biaxial and triaxial stress states are described, including simple engineering approaches on the one hand and more complex finite element analysis on the other. A description of the treatment fatigue crack growth is also provided with characteristic clarity. This incorporates an overview of the principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics including an overview of the meaning and application of the stress intensity factor.

Finally Modern Metal Fatigue Analysis addresses issues relating to the statistical analysis of fatigue behaviour, issues associated with the analysis of welds (including residual stresses), the use of the power spectral density diagram (auto-spectral density), and the concept of cumulative damage. The book includes an appendix describing the Verity® mesh-insensitive structural stress method for fatigue analysis of welded joints.

John Draper has succeeded in providing a comprehensive, readable and clear scientific textbook on fatigue and fatigue assessment that materials science and engineering students, design engineers and structural integrity practitioners will find extremely useful. Professor Andrew Sherry Director, Materials Performance Centre, and Director, Nuclear EngD Centre University of Manchester

Content:

  • v 1 INTRODUCTION TO FATIGUE
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Description of the applied loading
    1.3 Endurance curves
    1.4 Generalising fatigue data
    1.5 Other factors which influence fatigue strength
    1.6 Chapter contents
    1.7 References
  • 2 UNIAXIAL STRAIN-LIFE FATIGUE ANALYSIS
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 True stress and strain
    2.3 Fatigue life relationships
    2.4 Cyclic stress-strain relationships
    2.5 Material response to a sequence of strains
    2.6 Effect of mean stress
    2.7 Analysing local strain histories
    2.8 The Smith-Watson-Topper relationship
    2.9 Application of stress concentrations
    2.10 Analysing nominal strain histories
    2.11 Local strain analysis from a cycle histogram
    2.12 Analysis of cast iron
    2.13 Applicability of local strain analysis
    2.14 Summary of strain-life equations
    2.15 References
  • 3 LOCAL STRAIN MATERIALS DATA
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 The cyclic stress- strain curve
    3.3 The strain-life curve
    3.4 Practical testing
    3.5 Approximating materials data
    3.6 Applicability of materials data
    3.7 References
  • 4 SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR FATIGUE ANALYSIS
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Rainflow cycle counting
    4.3 Level crossing analysis
    4.4 Peak and valley counting
    4.5 Range counting
    4.6 Summary
    4.7 References
  • 5 FATIGUE ANALYSIS USING STRESS-LIFE (S-N) CURVES
    5.1 Introduction5.2 Application of stress concentrations
    5.3 Complex load histories 98
    5.4 Calculation of fatigue stress reserve factors 107
    5.5 Analysis Of Variable Amplitude Stress Histories 109
    5.6 Estimating materials fatigue data 112
    5.7 Applicability of S-N curves 113
    5.8 References 115
  • 6 STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
    6.1 Introduction 117
    6.2 Fatigue strength reduction factor 122
    6.3 Summary 130
    6.4 References 130
  • 7 BIAXIAL FATIGUE
    7.1 Introduction 133
    7.2 Stress and strain relationships 135
    7.3 Static yield criteria 145
    7.4 Multiaxial fatigue using equivalent stress or strain 147
    7.5 Critical plane analysis 167
    7.6 Wang-Brown criterion 170
    7.7 Effects of mean stress 171
    7.8 Dang Van criterion 181
    7.9 Summary of fatigue-life relationships 183
    7.10 References 185
  • 8 FATIGUE ANALYSIS FROM FINITE ELEMENT MODELS
    8.1 Introduction 187
    8.2 Terminology of finite element analysis 187
    8.3 Analysing a linear elastic model with single applied load history (Figure 8.3) 189
    8.4 Analysing a linear elastic model with multiple applied loads 191
    8.5 Analysing a sequence of data sets 194
    8.6 Frequency-domain finite element analysis. 195
    8.7 Other types of loading 195
    8.8 Output 196
    8.9 Speed considerations 197
    8.10 Accuracy of results 198
    8.11 Elastic-plastic FEA 199
    8.12 Recent developments 199
    8.13 Summary 200
    8.14 References 200
  • 9 USING STATISTICS IN FATIGUE
    9.1 Introduction 201
    9.2 Gaussian distribution 202
    9.3 The Weibull distribution 206
    9.4 Failure probability in design 207
    9.5 References 208
  • 10 CRACK PROPAGATION
    10.1 Introduction 209
    10.2 The purpose of fracture mechanics 209
    10.3 Stresses at the crack tip
    10.4 Fracture toughness
    10.5 Plasticity
    10.6 Multiaxial stresses at the crack tip
    10.7 Stress corrosion cracking
    10.8 Crack propagation
    10.9 Crack propagation calculations for complex components.
    10.10 Reference
  • FATIGUE OF WELDED STEEL JOINTS
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Weld classification
    11.3 Fatigue life curves
    11.4 Calculation of applied stress
    11.5 Effect of mean stress
    11.6 Effect of material UTS
    11.7 Calculation of probability of failure
    11.8 Practical fatigue calculations
    11.9 Hot-spot approach to fatigue of welds
    11.10 Structural stress approach to fatigue of welds
    11.11 References and further reading
  • FATIGUE ANALYSIS FROM THE PSD
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Why fatigue analysis from PSD’s?
    12.3 Early methods of fatigue analysis from the PSD
    12.4 Calculation of rainflow ranges from a PSD
    12.5 Summary
    12.6 References
  • FATIGUE TEST SIGNALS AND CUMULATIVE DAMAGE
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Constant amplitude tests
    13.3 Block loading test programs
    13.4 Editing signals to remove small cycles
    13.5 Effect of larger cycles
    13.6 Generic test signals
    13.7 Summary
    13.8 References
  • PRACTICAL FATIGUE ANALYSIS
    14.1 Introduction
    14.2 Locating strain gauges
    14.3 Data recording
    14.4 Short term recording or long term analysis
    14.5 Sampling signals
    14.6 Length of measured data
    14.7 Peak-valley extraction with cycle omission
    14.8 Interpreting analysis results
    14.9 References
  • APPENDIX 1. THE VERITY STRUCTURAL STRESS METHOD INDEX

The contents have been developed as course notes for training courses presented to engineers who need to apply fatigue knowledge in engineering design, fatigue testing and failure investigation. Course delegates regularly report that much of the course material is new information. The book will also be of value to undergraduates on mechanical engineering courses.