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Fatigue 84 – Proceedings of the 2nd International Fatigue Conference

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Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Fatigue and Fatigue Thresholds, Charlotesville Virginia, U.S.A., June 28-July 3, 1987 Editors: R.O.Ritchie and E.A.Starke.
ISBN 0 947817 23 9 (1987), 1871 pages in 3 volumes Retail: €260.

Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Fatigue and
Fatigue Thresholds held at the University of Birmingham, UK, 3-7
September 1984

VOLUME 1

Fatigue Failure and the Integrity of Structures
B. TOMKINS

CYCLIC DEFROMATION AND CRACK INITIATION PROCESSES

Cyclic Deformation and Crack Initiation Processes
L. REMY

Study of Dislocation Structure in a Polycrystalline Pure Aluminium
Strained Under Fatigue Conditions
G. GUICHON, J. CHICOIS, C. ESNOUF and R. FOUGERES

The Cyclic Plastic Behaviour of a 316 Steel at 20 to 600°C
C. GORLIER, C. AMZALLAG, P. RIEUX and J. H. DRIVER

Role of Nitrogen Interstitials in Plastic Fatigue of Austenitic
Stainless Steels
S. DEGALLAIX, R. TAILLARD and J. FOCT

On Saturation-Stress Evolution with Fatigue Strain Amplitude in
FCC Polycrystals, Metals and Alloys
J. WAILLE, J. CHICOIS, L. VINCENT, A. VINCENT and R. FOUGERES

On the Fatigue Behaviour of Pure Polycrystalline Aluminium Studied
by Unloading Stiffness Evolution
A.HAMEL, A. VINCENT, J. CHICOIS, C. MAI and R. FOUGERES

Cyclic Hardening of Al-Mg-Si Alloys with Coherent and Incoherent
Phases
A.K.BUSBY, L.EDWARDS and J.W.MARTIN

The Cyclic Stress-Strain Response and Strain Life Behaviour of
Metallic Materials
K. HATANAKA and T. FUJIMITSU

Fatigue Crack Initiation and Subsequent “Small Cracks” Growth at
a Notch-Root
Y. FURUYA and H. SHIMADA

The Effect of Crack Coalescence on Early Fatigue Failure
B.N. COX, W.L. MORRIS and M.R. JAMES

Quantitative Metallography of Fatigue Crack Initiation in Multi-phase
Materials
LU LING TU and W.L. HAWORTH

Fatigue of Cold Rolled and Anneal Hardened a Brass
B.J. DUGGAN and W.T. HUI

FATIGUE THRESHOLDS

The Fatigue Crack Propagation Behaviour of New Al-Li-X Alloys
WOLFGANG RUCH, KUMAR JATA and E.A. STARKE JR

Structural Generalities of Fatigue Threshold Formation in Steels

O.N.ROMANIV, A.N. TKACH and V.N. SIMINKOVICH

The Effects of Stress Ratio, Compressive Load and Underload on
the Threshold Behaviour of a 2024 T351 Aluminium Alloy
M.T.YU, T.H. TOPPER and P. AU

The Fatigue and Corrosion-Fatigue Crack Growth Behaviour of a Mn-Ni-Al
Bronze
J.I.DICKSON, L. HANDFIELD, J.-P. BAILON and M. SAHOO

Influence of Microstructure on Fatigue Crack Growth Rate and Threshold
in Tool and Die Steels
CUI KUN, HU ZHENHUA and YUAN JIEFENG

Near-Threshold Fatigue Crack Propagation in Isothermally Transformed
Steels
GU HAICHENG, ZENG JIAN and ZHOU HUI-JIU

Near Threshold Fatigue Crack Propagation in Iron Silicon Alloys

W.GEARY and P. LEGGATT

Influence of Plastic Zone Size on Closure Phenomenon at Fatigue
Thresholds in Steels
L.GUERRA-ROSA, C.M. BRANCO and J.C. RADON

Fatigue Crack Growth Threshold (?Kth) Under Mode III (The Effect
of Stress Ratio and Mixed Mode
S. YOSHIOKA, K. WATANABE, H. KITAGAWA, A. INOUE and M. KUMASAWA

Comparison of Short and Long Fatigue Crack Threshold Behaviour
of Wrought and Cast Mild Steel
H.W.LEE and R.I. STEPHENS

Absolute and Relative Thresholds in Medium Strength Steels and
Aluminium Alloys
J.A. LEWIS

Fatigue Threshold Dependence on Material, Environment and Microstructure

H.DOKER and M. PETERS

Effect of Some Testing Variables on Near-Threshold Fatigue Crack
Growth Behaviour in a High Strength Steel
GU MINGDA, DING CHUANFU, ZHAO WEI and YAN MINGGAO

Morphological Study of Near Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth in a
Coarse Grain Aluminium Alloy
GERHARD MAURER and H.W. LIU

The Influence of Microstructure and Temperature on Near-Threshold
Fatigue Crack Growth in Air and Vacuum
J.M.KENDALL and J.F. KNOTT

The Heat Produced Around the Fatigue Crack Tip Near the Threshold
Stress Intensity
R.PIPPAN and H.P. STUWE

Analysis of Data on Fatigue Crack Propagation Thresholds
D.TAYLOR

FATIGUE CRACK PROPAGATION

Fatigue Crack Propagation in Titanium Alloys
J.C.CHESNUTT, J.C. WILLIAMS and A.W. THOMPSON

On the Role of Microstructure in the Growth of Fatigue Cracks
G.R.YODER, L.A. COOLEY and T.W. CROOKER

Fatigue Crack Growth Characteristics of Al-Li Based Alloys
S.J.HARRIS, B. Noble and K. DINSDALE

Crack Propagation from Notches
V.M.RADHAKRISHNAN

Fatigue Crack Propagation in MA 754 Oxide Dispersion Strengthened
Alloy
M.Y.NAZMY, R.F. SINGER and C. WUTHRICH

Crack Propagation in Eutectoid Steel
K.HAMBERG and B. KARLSSON

Fatigue Improvement of Eutectoid Steel by Subcritical TMT’s
C.NANEZ and J.G. BYRNE

Stage I Fatigue Crack Propagation in Titanium Alloy Single Crystals

G.P.VANDER VELDE and D.A. KOSS

The Effect of Grain Size and Test Frequency on the Fatigue Behaviour
of Polycrystalline Cu
H.MULLNER, B. WEISS, R. STICKLER, P. LUKAS and L. KUNZ

Atmospheric Influence on Fatigue Crack Growth Mechanisims
J.H.KWON, A. BIGNONNET, B. BOUCHET and J. PETIT

Mechanisims of Environmentally Assisted Fatigue in Nickel and Al-Zn-Mg
Single Crystals
S.P.LYNCH

Fatigue Damage and Hydrogen Embrittlement of High Hardness Martensites

J.GENNE, F. SIDOROFF and L. VINCENT

The Fracture Mode Transition and its Effect on Crack Growth Retardation

R.A.H.EDWARDS, E.M. DE JONG and J. ZUIDEMA

MODELS AND MECHANISMS

Models for ?Kth and Near-Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth
P. LUKAS

A Fracture Kinetics Representation of Fatigue Crack Propagation
Rate
K. KRAUSZ and A.S.KRAUSZ

A Stochastic Model of Fatigue Crack Growth in Consideration of
Random Propagation Resistance
H.ISHIKAWA, A.TSURUI and A. UTSUMI

A Stochastic Model for Fatigue Crack Growth
R.ARONE

Near-Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth Prediction
G.GLINKA and J. RADON

Factors Governing Near-Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth
K.SADANANDA

Models for Fatigue Crack Deflection
S.SURESH

A Model for the Fatigue Crack Growth Orientation in Anisotropic
Metals under Combined Tension and Torsion Loading
I.VERPOEST and E. AERNOUDT

Modelling of Cyclic Stress-Strain Hysteresis Loops
W.R.CALLENDER and R. BROOK
SN Data Simulation by Fatigue Crack Propagation Data and Fracture
Mechanics Models
R.JACARD

High Temperature Fatigue in Nonhomogeneous Continuum (Fatigue of
Chemically Nonhomogeneous Tool Steel)
F.KOSEL and L. KOSEC

A Rate Formula of Fatigue Crack Propagation Expressed by the Crack
Area
ZHAO TINGSHI and WANG YUANHAN

VOLUME II

The Growing Fatigue Crack in the Aircraft Environment
P.J.E.FORSYTH

FATIGUE CRACK CLOSURE

Fatigue Crack Closure Models
R.L.CARLSON and C.J. BEEVERS

Ultrasound Interaction with Partially Closed Fatigue Cracks
O.BUCK and R.B. THOMPSON

Crack Closure Effects for Short Cracks and Variable Amplitude Loading

I.LE MAY and S.K.P. CHEUNG

The Influence of Surface Roughness Induced by Fracture Mechanisms
on the Fatigue Crack-Closure Phenomenon in Vacuum
M.C.LAFARIE-FRENOT and C. GASC

Crack Closure in the Low Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Regime in a
Cast Nickel Base Superalloy
J.N.VINCENT and L. REMY

The Influence of Crack Closure on the Fatigue Crack Propagation
of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-8.6Al
G.T.GRAY III and G. LUETJERING

Fatigue Crack Growth Characteristics and Crack Closure of Structural
Materials
MASAHRIO JONO and JIHO SONG

Effect of Sheet Thickness on Fatigue Crack Retardation and Validity
of Crack Closure Concept
K.TOKAJI, Z.ANDO, K.NAGAE and T. IMMAI

Effects of Microstructure and Specimen Geometry on Crack Propagation
Thresholds
M.E. FINE, J.L. HORNG and D.H. PARK

The Practical and Theoretical Significance of Small Cracks. An
Evaluation
J. SCHIJVE

Some Control Factors of Small Fatigue Cracks’ Behaviour
HIDEO KITAGAWA, RYOJI YUUKI, YUJI NAKASONE, KENJI KAWAMURA and MINEAKI
IIDA.

The Initiation and Growth of Microcracks in Nickelbase Superalloys

P.T. NEWMAN and C.J. BEEVERS

Propagation of Short Cracks in Low Cycle Fatigue
M.REGER, F.SONIAK and L. REMY

The Influence of Notch Stress Field on the Fatigue Crack Growth
Threshold Condition
I.W.HUSSEY, J. BYRNE and T.V. DUGGAN

Endurance Limit and Threshold Condition for Microcrack in Steels

T.KUNIO, M. SHIMIZU, K. YAMADA and M. TAMURA

Notch Sensitivity and Behaviour of Small Fatigue Cracks of Commercial
Purity Titanium
K.TAKAO and H. NISITANI

Observations of Small Cracks in Biaxial Fatigue
D.F.SOCIE, C.T. HUA, T.A. BEER and L.E. WAILL

The Influence of Texture on Fatigue Microcrack Propagation in an
Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy
J.K.GREGORY, A. GYSLER and G. LUETJERING

Fracture Mechanics Limitations for Short Cracks and the Non-Propagating
Cracks
A.STROMBONI

NON-UNIFORM LOADING

Simulated Flight Fatigue Crack Growth in a 2.5% Ni-Cr-Mo Steel

C.M.WARD-CLOSE and D.S. McDARMAID

Fatigue Crack Propagation under Stress and K-Controlled Spectrum
Loading
R.SUNDER

The Effect of Combined Major and Minor Stress Cycles on Fatigue
Crack Growth
B.E.POWELL, I. HENDERSON and T.V. DUGGAN

Fatigue Life Estimation Under the Random Behaviour of the Loading
Process
V.KLIMAN

Influence of Multiple Overloads on the Propagation of Fatigue Cracks

C.CHEHIMI, M.L. SCHNEIDER, C. ROBIN, G. PLUVINAGE and H.P. LIEURADE

Numerical Analysis of Fatigue Striations After a Single Overload

H.HOMMA, H. KOHSAKA and H. NAKAZAWA

Influence of Variable Amplitude Loading on the Fatigue Crack Initiation
and Crack Growth Life in Aircraft Structure
C.E.DUMESNIL and D.L. BALL

Theoretical Study on the Distribution of Fatigue Crack Propagation
Life Under Stationery Random Loading
A.TSURUI, H. ISHIKAWA and A. UTSUMI

CUMULATIVE DAMAGE

Fatigue Behaviour of Metallic Components Under Variable Amplitude
Loading: Influencing Factors and Prediction Methods
H.NOWACK

Fatigue Life Prediction Based on Local Effective Stress
J.C.EKVALL, L. YOUNG and M.D. McMASTER

Cumulative Fatigue and Crack Initiation Damage for an Austenitic
Stainless Steel
G.BAUDRY, C. AMZALLAG and J.L. BERNARD

Characterization of Lattice Defects Generated During Fatigue Cycling
of Nickel
TONI.L.GROBSTEIN, GERHARD E. WELSCH, NOKUL PANIGRAHI and JOHN. D.
McGERVEY

Low-Cycle Fatigue Behaviour and Cumulative Damage Effect of 316
Stainless Steel at 20°, 427° and 650°C

M.BERNARD, J.B. VOGT, T. BUI-QUOC and J.I. DICKSON

Cumulative Damage of Longitudinal Non-Load Carrying Fillet Welds

O.I.EIDE and S. BERGE

Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Under Variable Amplitude Loading Predicted
by a Simple Cumulative Damage Parameter
F.G.HAMEL and J. MASOUNAVE

POLYMERS AND COMPOSITES

The Environmental Tensile Fatigue of Reinforced Plastics
C.J.JONES, R.F. DICKSON, T. ADAM, H. REITER and B. HARRIS

Microcrack Growth in Aramid Reinforced Aluminium Laminates (Arall)

R.MARISSEN, K.N. TRAUTMANN, J. FOTH and H. NOWACK

Fatigue Response of Structural Composites
P.BEARDMORE

Fatigue of Composite Laminates under Mixed Tension-Compression
Loading
R.W.SCHULTZ and K.L. REIFSNIDER

TEST METHODS AND DATA ANALYSIS

Approximation of a Given Distribution by Rayleigh Distributions
for Fatigue Testing Purposes
L.P.POOK

Parameter Estimation of Weibull-Type-Fatigue Life Distributions
Including Non-Failure Probability
T.SAKAI and T. TANAKA

Data-Base on Fatigue Strength and Statistical Distribution Characteristics
of Fatigue Life and Fatigue Strength
T.TANAKA

Fatigue Damage Characterization by X-Ray Diffraction Line Analysis

V.WEISS and Y. OSHIDA

Nondestructive Failure Prediction in Cycled Commercial Alloys by
Computer Aided X-ray Rocking Curve Analysis (CARCA)
W.E.MAYO and S. WEISSMANN

Effect of Surface Contact on Residual Stress on the Fatigue Fractured
Surface – A Study of X-Ray Fractograph
S.KODAMA, H. MISAWA and Y. KUREBAYASHI

Influence of Heat-Treated Hardness on Impact Fatigue for Carbon
Steels
N.OKABE, T. YANO, T. MORI, S. KANAYAMA, H. NAKAYAMA and T. TANAKA

Determination of Fatigue Characteristic Values by Conventional
Rotary Bending Specimen
Y.SAWAKI and T. KAWASAKI

The Confidence Level and Determination of the Minimum of Specimens
in Fatigue Testing
Z.GAO

VOLUME III

Low Cycle Fatigue – A Thirty Year Perspective
L.F.COFFIN

LOW CYCLE FATIGUE

Relation of Cyclic Loading Pattern to Microstructural Fracture
in Creep-Fatigue
S.S.MANSON and G.R. HALFORD

A NonStandard Technique for the Evaluation of the Basic Laws of
the Strain Range Partitioning Method in Creep-Fatigue Life Prediction

V.BICEGO

Torsional Low Cycle Fatigue Behaviour of Normalized Low Carbon
Steels
G.KOMPEK and K.L. MAURER

Effect of Specimen Size on Low-Cycle Fatigue
E.LACHMANN and K.T. RIE

Low Cycle Straining and Failure Regularities under NonStationery
Loading
M.DAUNYS

Low Cycle Fatigue of Alloy 800H at 600°C
J.O.NILSSON and T.THORWALDSSON

Influence of Austenite on Low Cycle Fatigue of a 9% Ni Steel
J.ZVOKELJ and F. VODOPIVEC

GAS TURBINES

Fatigue Performance of Discs and Engineering Specimens
W.J.EVANS, M.E.F. SMITH and C.H.H. WILLIAMS

A Comparison of Short Crack Growth Behaviour in Engineering Alloys

M.A.HICKS and C.W. BROWN

The Effect of Orientation on Fatigue Crack Growth in a Nickel-Based
Single Crystal Superalloy
C.HOWLAND and C.W. BROWN

Fatigue Crack Growth in Anisotropic Superalloy Single Crystals

D.L.ANTON

The Effect of Dynamic Strain Ageing on Fatigue Crack Propagation
and Threshold Behaviour in a Ni-Base Superalloy
R.A.VENABLES and J.E. KING

Fatigue Threshold Behaviour in a Nickel Base Superalloy
R.S.VECCHIO, J.S. CROMPTON and R.W. HERTZBERG

An Investigation of High Temperature LCF Crack Growth Rates for
Directionally Solidified Alloy K5
XIE JIZHOU and LIU SHAOLUN

A Method for Life Evaluation for Gas Turbine Compressor Blades
Taking Account of Service Conditions
A.V.PROKOPENKO

OFFSHORE STRUCTURES AND CORROSION FATIGUE

Fatigue of Offshore Structures – A Review
W.D.DOVER and S. DHARMAVASAN

Strain Localization Enhanced by Preferential Dissolution in Corrosion
Fatigue – A Threshold Effect
B.D.YAN, G.C. FARRINGTON and C. LAIRD

The Influence of Plastic Deformation Mechanisms on the Corrosion-Fatigue
Behaviour of Ferritic Stainless Steels
T.MAGNIN and L. COUDREUSE

Corrosion Fatigue Crack Propagation in Steels Under Simulated Offshore
Conditions
I.M.AUSTEN and E.F. WALKER

Corrosion Fatigue Crack Propagation and Threshold Determinations
in Structural Steel
G.S.BOOTH, J.G. WYLDE and T. IWASAKI

Corrosion Fatigue Properties of High Tensile Steels For Offshore
Structures
SHIN-ICHI NISHIDA and CHIKAYUKI URASHIMA

Corrosion Fatigue of Tubular Welded Joints
T.J.WILSON and W.D.DOVER

Experimental Study of Fatigue Crack Propagation in Welded Tubular
Connections
A.BIGNONNET, H.P. LIEURADE, Y.SIXOU and J.L. LEBRUN

The Effect of Section Thickness upon the Fatigue Properties of
Welded and Cast Steel Joints
S.E.WEBSTER and E.F.WALKER

Fatigue of Welded Load-Carrying Steel Joints
J.KERR and D. HUTCHESON

Effects of Cathodic Protection on Corrosion Fatigue Crack Growth
in a Platform Steel in Sea Water
E.BARDAL, P.J. HAAGENSEN, M.GROVLEN and F. SAETHER

Fatigue Crack Growth in Sea Water Under Random Loading O.ORJASAETER
and A. DRAGEN

Reliability of Calculated Fatigue Lives of Offshore Structures

I.LOTSBERG, S. FINES and G. FOSS

ENERGY SYSTEMS

The Influence of Fatigue on the Energy Scene
B.J.L.DARLSTON

Fracture Criterions of Rotor and Frame Steels Under Low Cycle Loading
at Different Cycle Forms
M.MEDEKSHAS

Fatigue Cracking of Steam Turbine Shafts
R.D.BUCHHEIT, R.VISWANATHAN and C.M. JACKSON

Influence of Embrittlement on Fatigue Resistance of Hastelloy x
at 675°C
M.C.LECOCQ, C. LEYMONIE, G.THAUVIN and R. RISACHER

Fatigue Resistance of Austenitic Cr-Ni-Mo (316L) Steel Tube Weldments

G.THAUVIN, A. ANDRZEJEWSKI and C. LEYMONIE

Fatigue Response of Materials used in Large Super-conducting Magnets
for Fusion Technology
A.NYILAS, H. KRAUTH, M. METZNER and D. MUNZ

On the Correlation of Microstructure, Fatigue Life and Fatigue
Crack Propagation in Nickel Base Superalloys
W.HOFFELNER and R.B. SCARLIN

Low-Cycle-Fatigue Analysis of Notched Components with Application
to Turbine-Blade Fixations
G.HARKEGARD

ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS I

Engineering Significance of Fatigue Thresholds and Short Fatigue
Cracks for Structural Design
R.J.H.WANHILL

The Effect of Cold-Expanded Holes on the Fatigue Properties of
Aluminium Alloy 6082
J.CONLON and C.N. REID

Multiaxial High-Strain Fatigue of A-516 Grade 70 Steel
D.LEFEBVRE, C. CHEBL and E.KHAZZARI

A Study of Surface Crack Propagation on Wide Plates Under Bending
Loads
REN-JI YU, ZH-HONG JIN, KANG-SIAN LI and KAI-ZUO LIAN

Factors Affecting Fatigue Crack Growth Rate in Welded Joints
K.ULRICH

Quality Standard for Bridge Welds
R.J.ALLEN

Notch Simulation Concepts for the Evaluation of Crack Initiation
Lives of Service Loaded Components
P.HEULER and T. SEEGER

An Assessment of the Over-Conservatism of the ASME III Low Cycle
Fatigue Predictions for Fillet Welds
J.W.DUNN and J. ANDERSON

Fatigue Properties of 4 mm Thick Laser Welded Ti-6Al-4V Sheet
T.S.BAKER and P.G. PARTRIDGE

Fatigue Thresholds and Improvement of Welded Connections
I.F.C.SMITH, U. BREMEN and M.A. HIRT

Fatigue Performance of Surface Treated Gears
R.NATARAJAN and R. KRISHNAMURTHY

Evaluation of Thermal Fatigue Strength in LAP Type Solder Joints

M. MIYAZAKI and S. YOSHIOKA

Shot Peening – A Choice to Improve Fatigue Life of Titanium Components

W.OBERPARLEITER and W. SCHUTZ

The Effect of Dynamic Strain Ageing During Hold Time on Fatigue
Behaviour
S.W.NAM, I.S. CHOI and K.T. RIE

Fatigue Strength of Single- and Multi-Spot Welded Joints
J.KATAYAMA and T. SATOH

ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS II

Near-Threshold Fatigue: An Overview of the Role of Microstructure
and Environment
R.O.RITCHIE

Relationship Between Fatigue Modelling and Component Integrity

R.H.JEAL

Fracture Mechanics Analysis and Prediction of Delamination Growth
in Composite Structures
A.F.BLOM

LCF Behaviour of Alloy 800 H at 1123 K for Low Strain Rates: Experimental
and Analytical Results
H.CORDS, H. SCHIFFERS and H. SCHUSTER

Prediction of Crack Initiation Under Thermal Fatigue and Creep

P.M.LESNE and J.L. CHABOCHE

Initiation and Propagation of Short Cracks Under Cyclic Loading
of Al 2024 near Threshold
A.FATHULLA, B. WEISS and R. STICKLER

Threshold and Slow Fatigue Crack Growth Behaviour of IMI829
P.M.SOOLEY, R. JEAL and D.W. HOEPPNER

CONCLUDING REMARKS

C.LAIRD, R.O. RITCHIE, H. NOWACK

AUTHOR

INDEX